Sustainability continues to be a key focus for Irish businesses, and this emphasis will continue to grow in 2024 as companies address economic uncertainty, geopolitical tensions, increasing inflation, talent shortages, and changes in the environmental, social, and governance (ESG) regulatory framework.

Climate Action Plan 2024 (CAP24) is the third publication since the introduction of the Climate Action and Low Carbon Development (Amendment) Act 2021. CAP24 addresses the critical challenges and measures to be incorporated to achieve the legally binding target of reducing emissions by 51% (from a 2018 baseline) by 2030.​

While progress has been made across sectors, the current pace of progress in reducing Ireland’s GHG emissions is likely to be insufficient in meeting 2030 net zero targets. This is despite taking account of significant actions already underway and future actions planned across key sectors including agriculture, transport, electricity and the built environment. ​

Our teams explore the implications of Ireland's Climate Action Plan 2024 below.

Guide to Ireland’s Climate Action Plan 2024

To help Irish businesses understand CAP24 and how it will affect their ESG journeys and achieve ESG ambitions, our Sustainable Futures and Management Consulting teams have summarised CAP24 and its impact on citizens, communities, and enterprise.

In this third guide to Ireland’s Climate Actions plan, KPMG summarises key actions outlined in CAP24 across ten key sectors and provides our perspective on the scale of the challenge in achieving our 2030 targets. 

From Talk to Action

CAP24 calls for further accelerated action to support Ireland in closing the gap between ambition and action, achieving 2030 targets to proactively mitigate the worst effects of climate change, build Ireland’s climate resilience, ensure Ireland’s energy and food security, while also maintaining Ireland’s economic competitiveness.​

With delivery of actions from Climate Action Plan 2021 often being delayed and Ireland’s history of missed renewable energy and climate targets, it is crucial that the focus shifts in 2024 from talk to action.

Keeping track of progress

The Climate Action Plan 2024 presents significant challenges to Irish enterprise. Looking ahead, quarterly progress updates will continue to be made available, indicating the progress against the plan and highlighting the areas of greatest opportunity.  

Ireland’s Emissions:
Target reduction 1
Anticipated reduction 2
29% 3 | 42% 4
By sector % Emissions total Target reduction Anticipated reduction
Agriculture 34.3% 25% 19%
Transport 17.1% 50% 41%
Electricity 14.4% 75% 62%
Built Environment 11% 45% commercial
40% residental
50% commercial
48% residental
Land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) 10.7% n/a +15%
Industry 9.7% 35% 11%
Circular economy 2.8% 50% 21%
Public Sector 1.1% 51% 49%

Sector summaries


The Agricultural Sector is the largest contributor to Ireland’s GHG emissions.

To achieve this sectoral target, it will be crucial to promote reforestation and accelerate deployment of new technologies focused on limiting methane emissions.


Despite fuel price hikes and electric vehicle (EV) adoption, Transport is unlikely to achieve its targets.

Investment in EV charging infrastructure, public transport and active travel along with tax incentives on usage of EVs, renewable fuels etc. will be key enablers to close this gap.


Transport, heating, and Industry's dependence on electrification for decarbonisation will be critical for this sector in addressing the gaps.

Accelerating deployment of renewables – grid, planning and route to market will be key in addressing this shortfall.

Built Environment

The Built Environment is one of the only sectors estimated to exceed its 2030 targets, driven by a focus on retrofitting existing dwellings and installing heat pumps.

Continued activity is important as increased prices may have suppressed demand in recent years.

Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)

While emissions are forecast by the EPA to continue increasing, there are green shoots of hope primarily driven by the diversification opportunities for farmers such as organics, anaerobic digestion, tillage and incoming EU Nature Restoration Law.


There has been continued focus on initiatives such as Green Hydrogen and Green Procurement Strategy and Action Plan.

However, to achieve targets, electrification of heat using alternate construction materials and increased use of biomethane will be key drivers.

Circular Economy

With a circularity rate of 1.8%, Ireland lags well behind the EU average of 12.8%.

Developing prevention strategies, improving capture rates and reducing non-recyclable materials will aid in achieving targets.

Public Sector

Public Sector bodies have to lead by example by deploying policies and tighter governance frameworks to meet their 2030 targets. Purchasing energy from “green” energy suppliers, use of onsite renewables such as solar panels and accelerating the rate of electrification will help in continuing this trend.

Marine Environment

Recent changes within the marine environment include the transformation of the regulatory and planning regime and an increased focus on renewable energy, biodiversity conservation and climate resilience. Next steps in the sector include the publication of the next Seafood Sector Adaptation Plan.

Carbon Pricing & Cross-Cutting Policies

Key practices in place to achieve a low-carbon economy include carbon pricing and carbon tax. The 2024 budget included an increase in the Irish carbon tax rate to €56 per tonne of CO2e emitted (this increase results in approximately 1.7c extra cost per litre of petrol for customers).

Local Authorities

Local Authorities are proving well placed to strengthen alignment between national climate policy and the delivery of effective climate action at local and community levels, having already met both 2030 and 2050 energy and emission targets and built resilience to the impacts of climate change.

Get in touch

If you have any queries on the above report or the impacts of Ireland's Climate Action Plan 2024 on your business, please get in touch with our team below. We'd be delighted to hear from you.

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Target reduction (1) relates to the stated emissions reduction targets which have been set within the Climate Action Plan to support Ireland in achieving its legally binding target of reducing total greenhouse gas emissions by 51% by 2030. 

Anticipated reduction (2) relates to the emissions reduction that would potentially be realised, assuming all measures within the Climate Action Plan are implemented according to plan based on EPA forecasts. At present this anticipated reduction remains below Ireland’s emissions target reduction for both sectors as well as across the economy. However, achieving the anticipated reduction will be a challenge and is unlikely to be met by 2030. 

  1. Ireland’s Climate Action Plan 2024. 
  2. EPA Greenhouse gas emissions projections 2022-2040 ( 
  3. Refers to EPA’s latest GHG emissions projects modelled forecasts in a with additional measures scenario 
  4. Refers to EPA’s latest GHG emissions projects taking into account unmodelled measures and unallocated savings